Salt, NaCl, is the most abundant mineral in the human body. Up until recently, the understanding of the pathophysiology and diuretic treatment of heart failure has been focused on sodium and water. Chloride, however, despite flanking sodium as its anionic counterpart in salt, has been ignored. Over the last several years, however, chloride has been recognized to have an important role in heart failure. In this lecture, I will review the “heart failure syndrome” mainly through focusing on the chloride.

Speaker: Hajime KATAOKA ,MD
Nishida Hospital (Japan, Oita)
Cardiovascular Medicine Director