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Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is frequently present at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, with younger children, especially those less than 2 years-old, at higher risk. Complications include hypoglycemia, acute kidney injury, cardiac arrthymias and cerebral injury. DKA, along with these complications, is the most common cause of hospitalization, mortality, and morbidity in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.[8] The fatality rate is approximately 0.15-0.31% of cases. 

Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) is the most common ketone body produced in the body and increases during states of ketosis and ketoacidosis. Monitoring levels of BHB is an integrated part of DKA management.   

Learning Objectives:

  • Ketones in physiological and abnormal conditions
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Diabetes management during illness
  • Case of DKA during illness
  • BHN i the differential diagnosis of hypoglycaemia
  • Additional situation of blood BHB monitoring


Irena Aldhoon Hainerova
Ph.D.Associate Professor
Hospital Kralovske Vinohrady 

Marcin Pacek
Medical and Scientific Affairs Director
Nova Biomedical

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